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A Complete Guide to Allergies

What are Allergies?

Allergies are an immune system overreaction to ordinarily harmless substances called allergens. Common allergens include pollen, food proteins, insect venoms, mold, and pet dander.

A Complete Guide to Allergies-Aallergies

Types of Allergies

  • Food Allergies: Common triggers include peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, eggs, and milk.
  • Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever): Triggered by outdoor allergens like pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds.
  • Pet Allergies: Caused by proteins found in an animal's skin cells, urine, and saliva.
  • Insect Sting Allergies: Reactions to the venom from stings of bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants.
  • Drug Allergies: Reactions to medications, such as penicillin.
  • Latex Allergies: Caused by natural rubber latex.
  • Mold Allergies: Triggered by spores from mold or fungi.
  • Dust Mite Allergies: These are caused by tiny bugs that live in household dust.


Allergy symptoms can range from mild to severe and include:

  • Sneezing, runny or blocked nose
  • Itchy, red, watering eyes
  • Wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath
  • A rash or hives (urticaria)
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, eyes, or face
  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

Severe reactions (anaphylaxis) can lead to a rapid drop in blood pressure and loss of consciousness and require immediate medical treatment.


Allergy testing can help identify specific allergens. Methods include:

  • Skin prick tests
  • Blood tests (IgE antibodies)
  • Oral food challenges


While there's no cure for allergies, treatments can help relieve symptoms:

  • Avoidance: Steering clear of known allergens is the most effective strategy.
  • Medications: Antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal sprays can reduce symptoms. Corticosteroid creams can help with skin reactions.
  • Immunotherapy: Also known as allergy shots, this process gradually increases allergen exposure to build tolerance.
  • Emergency epinephrine: Those with severe allergies might need to carry an epinephrine auto-injector.

Preventive Measures

Preventive strategies can reduce the risk or severity of allergic reactions:

  • Keep living areas clean and dust-free.
  • Use allergen-proof bed covers to minimize dust mite exposure.
  • Avoid opening windows during high pollen seasons.
  • Use air purifiers with HEPA filters.
  • Follow a doctor's advice on food introduction to infants.

Allergy care involves understanding triggers, seeking a diagnosis, and effectively managing symptoms. Always consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and treatment options.

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